21. Protein is ample in the American diet and therefore is not a nutrient of concern. Animal protein is often high in SFA and is energy dense so portion size must be “appropriate.”
22. Interestingly the DGA is promoting dairy consumption even as some scientists (walter willett) do not feel this is warranted. To be certain, the committee is stressing that the no fat low fat option is prefered. Studies regarding weight loss or control by way of diary products are inconclusive. The recommendations for consuming dairy based on the nutrient value of the food group. The committee states that the calcium in milk is the most usable kind for the body and that milk products can also be a good source of protein. Within total calories per day - it is suggested that we have 2-3 cups of milk or milk products a day. I would add the caution on cheese, yogurt, milks and ice creams with regard to SoFAS J
23. Dietary fiber and whole grains are also highlighted and it is suggested that refined products be replaced by whole and that foods rich in fiber be consumed. Most importantly, “consumption of naturally occurring plant based foods that are high in dietary fiber” are recommended and a point is made that products with “added fiber” do not procure the same health benefits - if any. Whole grains and fiber protect against CVD, T2D, obesity and improve digestive health.
24. The increase in fruits and vegetables needs to occur with attention to the natural state of these foods such that they are not consumed with SoFASs, starches and sodium which would reduce their low density status.
25. The DGAC debunked the Glycemic Index and again referred to calories in the foods being more important than an index. However, they noted that some carbohydrates do have higher energy density and should be limited - or that the carbs that are higher in nutrients and fiber be the first choice. The report specifically noted calories per gram - i.e. LED (low energy density) and Volumetrics, citing research studies similar to those I have read.
26. SSB were noted to increase weight if persons consumed more calories than are needed to balance their weight and because it is easy to over consume due to the energy density, these drinks should be limited in those who are overweight.
27. Non- caloric sweeteners were also reviewed and again, as long as calories are controlled, there is no evidence to support the assertion that diet sodas lead to weight gain. There may be an association between overweight/obese persons and diet soda consumption, in that persons with higher BMIs are the ones drinking these beverages or using the sweeteners. Again and again, however, this report notes that it is total amount of calories - an excess of them - that is the problem (for weight) not where they come from “calories are the issue in either case.”
28. The report notes that what they find in laboratory studies, (satiety) may not play out the same in the real world where there is “a more complicated eating environment.”
29. Sodium, Potassium and Water are addressed and important statements pertaining to them include that when we reduce salt in peoples’ diets, their blood pressure comes down. Potassium improves blood pressure in those who have hypertension and consuming foods that are low in one(sodium) and higher in the other(potassium) is wise.
30. Most importantly - the guidelines debunk another myth by stating that there is NO MINIMUM amount of water that we need to consume in a day. We are not having trouble meeting our hydration needs as a whole. Those who engage in MVPA should hydrate accordingly as should those who are exposed to extreme heat. In other words, you do not need eight 8 oz glasses of water a day, but you need to not be thirsty.
DGAC (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee). 2010. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture.